In order for barristers or solicitors to be admitted as practising lawyers in Gibraltar they must comply with the Supreme Court Act 1930 as amended by the Supreme Court Amendment Act 2015 which requires, amongst other things, for all newly admitted lawyers as of the 1 July 2015 to undertake a year’s course in Gibraltar law at the University of Gibraltar. Although with somewhat different laws, England and Wales are considered within the United Kingdom a single united and unified legal jurisdiction for the purposes of both civil and criminal law, alongside Scotland and Northern Ireland, the other two legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom. In colloquial parlance within the Nigerian legal profession, lawyers may for this reason be referred to as “litigators” or as “solicitors”.
Perhaps for this reason, a Nigerian lawyer is also often referred to as a Barrister and Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, and many Nigerian lawyers term themselves Barrister-at-Law complete with the postnominal initials “B.L.”. Lawyers may argue in any Federal trial or appellate court as well as any of the courts in Nigeria’s 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory. Under that system, lawyers were entitled to represent their clients in law, but were only able to file cases before the court at which they were registered.
The Netherlands used to have a semi-separated legal profession comprising the lawyer and the procureur, the latter resembling, to some extent, the profession of barrister. Senior members of the profession may be selected for elevation to the Inner Bar, when they may describe themselves as Senior Counsel (“S.C.”). Admission to the Inner Bar is made by declaration before the Supreme Court , patents of precedence having been granted by the Government Irish barristers are sole practitioners and may not form chambers or partnerships if they wish to remain members of the Bar Council’s Law Library. The Bar Council of India also prescribes “Rules of Conduct” to be observed by the Barristers in the courts, while interacting with clients and even otherwise.
Enrollment with a Bar Council also means that the law degree holder is recognized as a Barrister and is required to maintain a standards of conduct and professional demeanor at all times, both on and off the profession. See the list of lawyers admitted to the Bundesgerichtshof Those lawyers may not plead at other courts, almost only deal with litigation, and are usually instructed by a lawyer who represented the client in the lower courts. The profession included several grades ranked by seniority: avocat-stagiaire (trainee, who was already qualified but needed to complete two years (or more, depending on the period) of training alongside seasoned lawyers), avocat, and avocat honoraire (senior barrister).
Intending Quebec attorneys must earn a bachelor’s degree in civil law, pass the provincial bar examination, and successfully complete a legal internship to be admitted to practice. The profession of solicitor, or avoué, never took hold in colonial Quebec, so attorneys 11 (avocats) have traditionally been a fused profession, arguing and preparing cases in contentious matters, whereas Quebec’s other type of lawyer, civil-law notaries (notaires), handle out-of-court non-contentious matters. In Canada (except Quebec ), the professions of barrister and solicitor are fused, and many lawyers refer to themselves with both names, even if they do not practise in both areas.
All law graduates educating from home or abroad have to write and pass the Bar Council Examination to be enrolled and admitted as professional Advocates to practice law both as Barristers & Solicitors. In the common law tradition, the respective roles of a lawyer – that is as legal adviser and advocate – were formally split into two separate, regulated sub-professions, the other being the office of solicitor. Intellectual challenge – legal systems, case law, changing laws and unique cases mean lawyers are working with conceptually challenging and complex issues.
Diverse practice areas – the range of work is growing all the time as new areas of specialisation emerge within the legal system, offering the chance to specialise by subject (tax, crime, family, civil, IP, competition and many more). The Rules are thus partly obligatory and disciplinary and partly constitutive and descriptive in that they define a lawyer’s professional role. Others, generally cast in the term “may,” are permissive and define areas under the Rules in which the lawyer has discretion to exercise professional judgment.
Every lawyer is responsible for observance of the Rules of Professional Conduct. An independent legal profession is an important force in preserving government under law, for abuse of legal authority is more readily challenged by a profession whose members are not dependent on government for the right to practice. 8 A lawyer’s responsibilities as a representative of clients, an officer of the legal system and a public citizen are usually harmonious.
A lawyer should strive to attain the highest level of skill, to improve the law and the legal profession and to exemplify the legal profession’s ideals of public service. 7 Many of a lawyer’s professional responsibilities are prescribed in the Rules of Professional Conduct, as well as substantive and procedural law. A lawyer should be mindful of deficiencies in the administration of justice and of the fact that the poor, and sometimes persons who are not poor, cannot afford adequate legal assistance.
In addition, a lawyer should further the public’s understanding of and confidence in the rule of law and the justice system because legal institutions in a constitutional democracy depend on popular participation and support to maintain their authority. 5 A lawyer’s conduct should conform to the requirements of the law, both in professional service to clients and in the lawyer’s business and personal affairs. A lawyer should keep in confidence information relating to representation of a client except so far as disclosure is required or permitted by the Rules of Professional Conduct or other law.
Professional ethics are frequently formulated in Codes of Conduct or Rules of Professional Practice, which illustrate the high standards on which reputations for professionalism rest…. Professional Codes or Rules are designed in part to help reassure the public of two conditions.